Kansas City White Papers
White papers from the IEEE Smart Cities Kansas City Kickoff Workshop, February 2016 in Kansas City, Missouri, USA.
A Vision for Smart Cities based on Current Research
Elaina J. Sutley, Ph.D., Matthew Fadden, Ph.D., P.E., and Jian Li. Ph.D.
Smart structures that provide the infrastructure for smart cities should include cutting edge structural engineering design, construction, monitoring, sensing, and should interact with society in smart, sustainable, and resilient ways. This paper discusses a vision based on current research in the Department of Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering at the University of Kansas to improve sustainability and resilience of future smart cities through smart structural systems, the use of smart structural health monitoring sensors, and the interaction of engineering with societal goals.
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Analysis and Use of Lidar Data in City Planning
James R. Miller, Brandt Melick, and Patrick Hogan
Abstract—The city of Springfield, Oregon is actively using lidar data for city planning and management functions. We describe four areas in which advanced technology enabled by this lidar data is helping the city planners make intelligent policy and planning decisions.
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Building an Adaptive System for Multiple Policy Goals in Cities
Alfred Ho, Ph.D., Elaina J. Sutley, Ph.D., Alexandra Kondyli, Ph.D., and Bonnie Johnson, Ph.D.
City Management as an Adaptive System
Cities are dynamic clusters of economic activities, social interactions, cultural assets, and meanings. Between day and night times, between weekdays and weekends, and during different events and seasons, the flows of people, goods, and capital in and out of a metropolitan area fluctuate dramatically. The dynamics of city life and the exchange of information as a complex system are the driving forces that propel creative activities and economic vitality.
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Dynamic capacity planning of wireless networks using user mobility behavior in smart cities
Pedro Tonhozi de Oliveira and Cory Beard
Abstract— Smart cities are envisioned as the organic integration of systems to provide valuable information for its citizens and service providers. One such example is user mobility behavior information (use of user location data) related to wireless network consumption and demands. In this paper, we propose the use of this data in a novel manner for capacity planning purposes in wireless networks. We approach fifth generation (5G) capacity planning by considering Cloud Radio Access Networks and Software Defined Mobile Networks to improve dynamic resource allocation. Privacy concerns are also addressed.
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High Reliability 4G and 5G Cellular Wireless Services for Smart Cities
Abstract— Smart cities are supported by many vital utility and service industries that can take advantage of data collection and remote control applications. The rich data repositories provided in smart cities can be used to tailor services to user needs and to more safely, reliably, and responsively provide key services. Even though not widely used today, many vital utilities and service industries are considering the use of Long Term Evolution (LTE) 4th generation (4G) cellular communications, due its low cost and availability. These industries include electric utilities (especially for smart grid applications), air traffic control, railways, and FirstNet emergency public safety communication networks. Serious limitations exist, however, with LTE. These include availability, traffic prioritization, coverage, and security. This paper gives key research agendas for improvement.
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Improving Privacy Protection for Police Body Camera Systems in Smart Cities
Claire Cochrane and Chiu C. Tan
The main drawbacks of police body worn cameras is the potential threat to our privacy. This article summarizes the main approach towards privacy protections that are used by police departments today, and discusses how advancements in mobile/wireless systems can help improve privacy protections in future Smart City environments.
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Providing Ubiquitous Wireless Connectivity in Smart Cities through Dense Small Cell Deployment
Abstract—Information and Communication Technologies are a key enabler for the realization of future Smart Cities. These technologies can provide pervasive and ubiquitous wireless connectivity to citizens, thanks to which citizens will be able to contribute to the improvement of several urban services. Such connectivity is generally realized through mobile broadband wireless devices, such as smart phones and tablets. However, the severe increase in mobile subscriptions and data usage, pose severe challenges to mobile network operators in meeting the growing demand, without creating new network complexity. Small cell networks have been proposed as a viable solution to offload the macrocell network. However, the wide spread adoption of dense small cell networks is challenging, due to potential interference and increased energy consumption, that may prevent to achieve the potential benefits of this technology. This paper describes the challenges and overviews a framework to enable dense deployments of small cell networks. The framework includes techniques for selective activation, inference prediction, energy harvesting and computation offloading, with the ultimate goal of providing user efficient and pervasive connectivity to meet the demand of future Smart Cities.
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Resilience and Survivability for Future Wireless Smart Cities
James P.G. Sterbenz, Lingjia Liu, Amir Modarresi, and Rachad Atat
It is clear that the current explosion in wireless networks will continue, driven by the need for mobile, untethered, ad-hoc, personal and device-to-device network applications. Furthermore, Future Smart cities will also require a number very diverse physical realms, supported by a wide variety of technologies beyond IP (or IPv6) including 5G, MANETs, DTNs, sensor/actuator, and smart grid networking. Furthermore, the current Internet imposes IP as the “hourglass waist”, forcing least-common denominator semantics on the end-to-end transport using inter-realm paths. Finally, the networking infrastructure will have interdependencies on other critical infrastructure including the power grid (which powers the Internet and increasingly needs the network for control), and transportation networks who present situational awareness through the network, and use the network to optimise and load-balance pedestrian, personal vehicular, mass transit, and freight.
Future smart cities will further be deployed in dense environments in which spectrum will be limited, even under dynamic allocation, and will have to carefully balance spatial reuse, as well as the partitioning of wired (where practical for fixed devices and access) and wireless (where necessary or convenient for mobile and untethered) communication.
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Smart City Real-Time Low Cost Surveillance System based on Raspberry Pi
Huu-Quoc Nguyen and Eui-Nam Huh
Abstract—Smart cities seek to build the surveillance systems in order to improve the efficiency of urban spaces while reducing costs and resource consumption. There are several defects in the video surveillance system, such as: picture is indistinct, anomalies cannot be identified automatically, a lot of storage spaces are needed to save the surveillance information, and prices remain relatively high. This paper describes the novel design of a smart city low-cost surveillance system based on Raspberry Pi, a single board computer which follows Motion Detection algorithm written in Python as a default programming environment. In addition, the system uses the motion detection algorithm to significantly decrease storage usage and save investment costs.
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Using Gamification to Encourage Resident Engagement
Many of us live in smart cities, cities that use technology to enhance the quality of life for residents. Inspired by the idea of “smart city”, several academic projects and applications have emerged to use technology for the benefit of city residents. As an example, some applications collect traffic data to provide residents with information about congestion and road accidents. The information can be collected by sensors or reports made by drivers. Other applications allow residents to report problems such as illegal trash dumping, faulty street lights, broken tiles on sidewalks, and illegal advertising boards. These applications cannot be successful if city residents don’t frequently use them. One idea to encourage engagement is to use gamification, employing game elements to make the applications more enjoyable and motivating for users. Using gamification has proven successful in some fields such as education and business. This motivates us to explore its potential in smart city applications.
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